Salvador Espinoza Escobar, 48, is accused of “withholding basic needs in exchange for forced sexual acts” with the woman since January 2015.
He was arrested in North Carolina on Wednesday following a tip-off to the national human trafficking hotline.
The Randolph County Sheriff’s Office said he was “taken into custody without incident”.
Mr Escobar, who lives in the city Asheboro, was later charged with one felony count of human trafficking.
He appeared in court by video link on Friday before being released on a $100,000 bond.
Randolph County Sheriff’s Office said it was their first arrest for this type of offence.
Investigators confirmed that the alleged victim is a woman, according to local TV station WCII 12, but said they wanted to protect her privacy.
“No information will be released regarding the victim’s identity or condition for protection and privacy,” the sheriff’s office said in a statement.
“This case remains under investigation and additional charges may be forthcoming.”
The sheriff’s office said it was working with World Relief Triad, a local non-profit organisation, and the Department of Social Security to support the alleged victim.
Mr Escobar is next due to appear in court on 12 February.